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Industrial Radiography (RT) + Department of Health (D.O.H.)

Level 1 (72 hours – 13 days)

Basic concepts of radiography - Physical principles of electromagnetic radiation; Types of radiation sources; generation of x-rays and the generation of gamma rays; natural radioactive material and artificially produced radioisotopes. Radiation absorption and interaction with matter (ionisation). Radiation safety, precautions and safe handling, transportation of radioisotopes. Safety and precautions when using x-ray generators. Personal safety precautions and regulations as laid down by the Department Of Health (D.O.H).Radiation detection and recording. Radiographic film types, film exposure and processing techniques. Reporting and procedures. Practical exercises; Film quality and image detail. End-of-course examinations.

Department Of Health:

When carrying out radiography use is made of shortwave ionizing and penetrating energies which are harmful to people in the vicinity requiring stringent attention to certain safety factors. The D.O.H. lays down the regulations regarding the safe use of this type of energy and require that before radiography can be carried out the person performing the work be registered as a radiographer. He or she must undergo an approved training programme followed by a written examination. The person must then gain six months practical work experience before being authorized to work unsupervised.
Due to the relative hazards of this type of energy it is illegal to perform any radiographic work unless the person has been registered with the Department Of Health or works under the direct supervision of a D.O.H. registered radiographer until he/she has been duly registered.

Level 2 (80 hours - 10 days)

As for Level 1 but at a more in depth level. For example - Radiographic techniques, selection of film types, image quality, controlling factors, radiographic density, exposure charts, various IQI (penetrameter) advantages and disadvantages. Viewing, interpretation and evaluation of radiographs, types of flaws, identification of material flaws, production and in-service flaws. Real time radiography. Practical exercises. ( Strong emphasis on the practical ). Reporting and procedures. End-of-course examinations.
Interpretation Of Radiographs:-
Many industrial inspectors are involved in inspections where use of radiography is made. In these instances the persons concerned may well be called upon to interpret and evaluate the radiographs as part of their duties. Although the inspector does not necessarily have to do the actual radiography work, he/she must have a sound understanding as to how a radiograph is generated and the associated problems of the process that could affect the end result of the radiography.

The inspector must be able to recognise all the possible flaws that might be found in castings, forgings weldments etc, and how they would appear on radiographs of various materials.



Ultrasonic Examination (UT)

Level 1 (72 hours - 9 days)

Physical properties of sound energy in the ultrasonic range, generation of ultrasound (various types of transducers), piezo-electric effect, propagation of sound energy through materials, types of wave forms and velocities in materials. Ultrasonic test methods, pulse echo, through transmission, immersion testing. Compression, angle, surface beam testing. Beam profiles, attenuation of energy, acoustic impedance. Energy conversion at interfaces, reflection, refraction, mode conversion. Calibration standards. Practical exercises, calibration and inspection, Evaluation of reflectors. Reporting and procedures. End-of-course examinations.

Level 2 (80 hours - 10 days)

Same as for Level 1 but more in depth with emphasis on: Practical testing, flaw identification, beam and flaw plotting. Inspection of welds, castings and forgings, aerospace components, billets. Calibration of equipment, inspection flaw sizing using the 6dB, 20dB maximum amplitude methods. Reference sizing, according to DGS and DAC techniques. End-of-course examinations.



Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT)

Level 1 (32 hours - 5 days)

Magnetic fields in and around magnets, Principles of magnetism. Limitations of magnetism in the various metals, i.e. paramagnetic, diamagnetic and ferromagnetic. Flux leakage fields, when used for inspection purposes and flaw detection, Magnetic hysteresis of various metals, advantages and disadvantages of the magnetic particle method. Generation of magnetic fields in materials using electrical current flow; AC and DC yokes, transformer power packs, test benches. Permanent magnets. Magnetic field and intensity measuring and detection using Hall gauges, field strength meters and flux indicators. Inspection using fluorescent and visible contrast particles (wet and dry). Illumination for inspection, white light and ultraviolet energy. Practical exercises. Reporting and procedures. End-of-course examinations.

Level 2 (32 hours - 5 days)

Same as for Level 1 but more in depth theory and more practical exercises. Reporting and procedures. End-of-course examinations.



Liquid Penetrant Inspection (PT)

Level 1 (32 hours - 5 days)

General principles of penetrants, covering fluorescent and visible contrast (red dye). Limitations of the methods, and following correct inspection procedures, i.e. pre-cleaning, penetrant application and removal, developer application. Advantages and disadvantages of the different methods - water washable, post emulsifiable and solvent removable. Different types of developers and applications, inspection, interpretation and evaluation of indications. Post cleaning of specimens and quality control checks of penetrant systems. Illumination and intensities of white light and ultraviolet energy used for inspection. Practical exercises. Reporting and procedures. End-of-course examinations.

Level 2 (32 hours - 5 days)

Same as for Level 1 but more in depth theory and more practical exercises. Reporting and procedures. End-of-course examinations.



Eddy Current Inspection (ET)

Level 1 (40 hours - 5 days)

Basics of AC and DC current flow circuits, Resistivity, conductivity, electrical current, voltage, Ohm's Law. Magnetism, generation of electro-magnetic fields in conductors and coils. Permeability of materials, Hysteresis, current generation by electro-magnetic induction. Faraday's Law - Oersted's Law. Transformer effect, generation of pulsed direct and alternating currents. Eddy current field generation, in non - ferrous and ferrous materials. Impedance current, plotting impedance, plane diagrams and vectors, voltage monitoring, coils used for inspection purposes. Conductivity curves, lift-off locus. Uses of eddy currents for flaw detection, thickness measuring and material sorting. Calibration of equipment. Practical exercises. Inspection, interpretation and evaluation of indications. Reporting and procedures. End-of-course examinations.

Level 2 (40 hours - 5 days)

As for Level 1 - Eddy current circuitry, absolute and differential circuits, sorting bridges. Monitor displays. Filtration Plotting and recording. Calibration standards. Surface coils and internal coil inspection. Practical exercises. Reporting and procedures. End-of-course examinations.